Invest in climate change mitigation and agriculture

Economic analyses find that there are many climate change mitigation opportunities in agriculture. Now is the time to seize them. Photo: V Atakos (CCAFS) in Kenya.
(afficher l'original)

As the time frame for limiting climate change shortens, public and private investment in low emissions agriculture must rapidly scale up to meet climate change mitigation targets.

As investors, companies and farmers face evolving climate-related risks to production and stability of supply chains, now is the time to transform to low-carbon and resilient global food systems. Below are economic analyses and business cases for achieving climate change mitigation in agriculture, with a focus on opportunities in production. More business cases are on the way.

Economic analyses and business cases

Gromko D, Abdurasalova G. 2018. Climate change mitigation and food loss and waste reduction: Exploring the business case. CCAFS Working Paper no. 246.

Kroeger T, Klemz C, Shemie D, Boucher T, et al. 2017. Assessing the Return On Investment in Watershed Conservation: Best Practices Approach and Case Study for the Rio Camboriú PWS Program, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Nature Conservancy.

Peiffer A, Haustermann M. 2017. The Business Case For Natural Capital Assessment.  Global Nature Fund (GNF).

Sheane R. 2016. Making the business case for sustainable commodities: A guide to good practice. World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF).

Watkiss P, Hunt A, Rouillard J, Troeltzsch J, Lago M, et al. 2015. The Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Results from the ECONADAPT project. ECONADAPT Policy Report 1. 


Bunn C, Schreyer F, Castro F. 2018. The economic case for climate action in West-African cocoa production report. CCAFS.

Porras I, Amrein A, Vorley B. 2015 Reforestation, carbon sequestration and agriculture: can carbon financing promote sustainable smallholder activities in Nicaragua? IIED and Hivos.


Gromko D. 2018. Business models for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from food loss and waste: Improving cereal storage in Tanzania could reduce food loss and emissions by 14%. CCAFS.


Ericksen P, Crane T. 2018. The feasibility of low emissions development interventions for the East African livestock sector: Lessons from Kenya and Ethiopia. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Research Report 46. 

van Geel S, Vellinga T, van Doremalen L, Wierda C, Claasen F, Dros JM. 2018. From subsistence to professional dairy businesses: Feasibility study for climate-smart livelihoods through improved livestock systems in Oromia, Ethiopia. Solidaridad. 

Gromko D. 2018. Business models for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from food loss and waste: Reducing milk spoilage in Kenya could reduce food loss and emissions by 10.5%. CCAFS.

Kashangaki J, Ericksen P. 2018. Cost–benefit analysis of fodder production as a low emissions development strategy for the Kenyan dairy sector. ILRI Project Report.

van Dijk S, Wilkes A, Odhong' C. 2018. The potential for commercial hay production in Kenya. CCAFS Info Note

Wilkes A, van Dijk S, Odhong' C. 2018. The potential for reduced consumption of high- emission energy in Kenya’s dairy sector. CCAFS Info Note. 


Tran VT, Mai VT, Nguyen TDT, Le HA, Richards MB, Sebastian L, Wollenberg E, Vu DQ, Sander BO. 2019. An investment plan for low-emission rice production in the Mekong River Delta region in support of Vietnam's Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement. CCAFS Working Paper No. 263. 


Burian G, Seale J, Warnken M, Scarsbrook M, Montgomery H, et al. 2018. The Business Case for Investing in Soil Health. World Business Council for Sustainable Development.

WBCSD. 2018. The business case for investing in soil health. World Business Council for Sustainable Development.


Gromko D. 2018. Business models for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from food loss and waste: Crates to transport tomatoes in Nigeria could reduce food loss and emissions by 36%. CCAFS.

National and corporate emissions accounting

Basak R. 2016. Monitoring, reporting, and verification requirements and implementation costs for climate change mitigation activities: Focus on Bangladesh, India, Mexico, and Vietnam. CCAFS Working Paper no. 162.

More information

Chambwera M, Heal G, Debeux C, Hallegatte S, et al. 2014. Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. 

Changing Markets Foundation. 2018. Growing the Good: The case for low-carbon transition in the food sector. Changing Markets Foundation, Mighty Earth, Compassion in World Farming.

Dixson-Declève S, Whittington E, Koegler P, Spence-Jackson H, et al. 2016. Business compendium: How the private sector is building Europe’s climate ambition. University of Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership (CISL).

Falconer A. 2017. Climate finance: agriculture investments. Climate Policy Initiative presentation. 

Lee J, Martin A, Kristjanson P, Wollenberg E. 2015. Implications on equity in agricultural carbon market projects: a gendered analysis of access, decision making, and outcomes. Environment and Planning A.

Mendizabal CA. 2018. How can we turn climate-smart agriculture to a good investment? CCAFS blog.

Robins N, Brunsting V, Wood D. 2018. Climate change and the just transition: A guide for investor action. Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.

Sadler MP; Millan Arredondo A, Swann SA, Vasileiou I, Baedeker T, Parizat R, Germer LA, Mikulcak F. 2016. Making climate finance work in agriculture. Washington DC, USA: World Bank Group.

Sellare J. 2016. Are climate-smart agricultural practices economically desirable? CCAFS blog.

Tallis HT, Ricketts T, Guerry AD, Nelson E, Ennaanay D, Wolny S, et al. 2011. InVEST 2.0 Beta User’s Guide: Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs. The Natural Capital Project.

World Bank. 2010. Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change: Synthesis report. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.

CCAFS works with multiple partners on investment, economic analyses and business cases.

For more information on investing in climate-smart agriculture, please contact Alberto Millan, Senior Climate Finance Specialist (