Agriculture is the backbone of West African economies, providing employment and income to about 70% of the population. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is cognizant of the important role that the sector plays for its member states and the challenges posed by climate change. Therefore, ECOWAS decided to promote Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) within its regional agriculture promotion policy, and developed a CSA implementation framework. The CSA implementation framework aims to increase productivity and farm incomes sustainably and equitably, enhance adaptation and resilience to climate variability and change, and to control and/or reduce greenhouse gas emissions wherever possible and appropriate. In order to translate the aims of the CSA implementation framework into action, ECOWAS, together with partners including CCAFS launched a West African Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture. The Alliance is the consultation, coordination, convergence, funding and monitoring framework of the CSA implementation framework. The Alliance brings together Government agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations, farmer organizations, private sector, international organizations and other agencies in a voluntary and inclusive multi-stakeholder partnership. CCAFS was a scientific partner in the development of the CSA implementation framework and the Alliance. CCAFS produced a paper on the Scientific, Political and Financial Landscape of Climate-Smart Agriculture in West Africa, with inputs from scientists at the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF), and Ibadan University. This paper was used as the background document of the high-level forum to develop climate-smart agriculture, where the Alliance and CSA implementation framework was announced. CCAFS staff members were also on the technical team of the high-level forum and backstopped the development of different background documents which enabled key decisions at the forum.