Standard assessment of agricultural mitigation potential and livelihoods (SAMPLES)

Photo: V. Meadu (CCAFS)

Project description

Smallholder farmers provide up to 80 percent of the food supply in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Yet little is known about either the contribution of smallholder systems to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or how smallholder farmers can mitigate GHG emissions or sequester carbon, and benefit from doing so. SAMPLES addresses the dearth of reliable information about greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture in tropical countries.

SAMPLES scientists work with developing countries to improve data on agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potentials.

The CGIAR Research Program Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) coordinates SAMPLES in collaboration with the following CGIAR centers and scientists, and global and regional partners.


With better information, governments, non-governmental organisations, and farmers can:

1. Identify high-production, low-emissions development trajectories in the agricultural sector.

2. Participate in the emerging green economy and access climate finance

3. Strengthen tropical countries’ negotiating positions in global climate discussions


SAMPLES research defines emission factors for smallholder systems, informing the national and international climate change negotiations and commitments.

SAMPLES scientists and collaborators have developed measurement methods and guidelines to support field measurements of agricultural greenhouse gas sources and sinks around the world.

The Climate Food and Farming Network (CLIFF) is an international research network that links SAMPLES researchers and doctoral students working on climate change mitigation and adaptation in small-scale farming and food systems. CLIFF was launched by CCAFS in 2011 in collaboration with the Department of Agriculture and Ecology at University of Copenhagen and the Department of Agroecology at Aarhus University.


CCAFS coordinates SAMPLES in collaboration with 8 CGIAR centers and more than 20 global and regional partners.

Further Information

For more information, please contact Julianna White (CCAFS) at