Upscaling promising livestock options for greenhouse gas emissions in Asia

Photo: G. Smith (CIAT)
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Reducing emissions intensities from livestock is an opportunity  and necessity  given sectoral trends of increasing per capita meat and dairy consumption in developing countries, where the population is growing.

This project consists of four work packages that test and scale low-emission development (LED) options in Asian dairy production systems:

1. Upscaling LED options in small-scale dairy farms in Indonesia (SIDPI; 2016-2019)
2. Testing and upscaling LED options in large-scale dairy farms in China (2019-2021)
3. Fungi treatment for lignin degradation of low-quality biomass (2019-2021)
4. Closing Regional Nutrient Cycles for low-emission agriculture (2018-2021)
LED options are focussed on improved feeding, fodder production, and manure management at the farm level and regional level. Strategies developed in this project contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mainly through improved resource use efficiency and contributions to the circular economy. LED options focussed on improved feeding and fodder production can increase farm productivity and income, and improve farmer livelihoods.
The main activities are (i) the testing of (novel) LED options through field research in practical dairy farms, (ii) assessing ecological and economic sustainability of current and improved practices, (iii) evaluating the feasibility of upscaling in technical demonstrations and business case analyses, and (iv) hosting stakeholder activities to identify, engage, and guide end users. 
Participation of youth and women is stimulated in project activities, i.e. young/female-headed pilot farms, young/female researchers, and participation of youth and women in trainings, focus groups, and demonstrations. Potential benefits of LED options to youth and women will be evaluated in field research in China. 


Sustainable Intensification of Dairy Production in Indonesia (SIDPI)

In Indonesia, dairy production is challenged by low productivity and high impact on the environment due to poor manure management, poor feeding, poor reproduction and animal health problems. To confront these challenges, the SIDPI project aims to increase the productivity of smallholder dairy farms in West Java, while improving food security and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The project is developing and implementing improved strategies for manure, feeding, and animal health and management.

SIDPI tailors new knowledge and solutions to smallholder dairy farmers in West-Java to:

  • sustainably increase farm productivity
  • reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • improve resource use efficiency
  • improve farmers' incomes and livelihoods in the long term.

Project activities include i) design and implementation of pilot studies on improved manure, feeding and animal health management; ii) scientific research on ecological, economic and social sustainability of current and improved practices; and iii) upscaling and dissemination of results via trainings, demonstrations, focus group discussions, media, etc. The role of women in dairy farming has been monitored in the project starting from the baseline survey and will continue throughout. SIDPI intends to ensure that women farmers’ incomes and livelihoods improve at least on part with improvements shown by men farmers.


Andeweg K, de Vries M, Al-Zahra W, Vellinga T. 2016. Reducing environmental impact and nuisance at landless dairy farming systems in Indonesia: example of improving manure management. Abstract Book, World Dairy Summit, p53.

In 2016, SIDPI completed collection of data, a stakeholder (farmers, private sector, policy makers) workshop on manure management with social media outreach, and a farmer focus group discussion. Consensus was reached with project partners and local stakeholders about locally suitable strategies for simultaneously improving productivity, income, resource use efficiency, and reducing GHG emission intensities, and research was begun for estimating effects of these strategies on productivity, income, resource use efficiency, and GHG emissions. 

In 2017, testing, discussions, and training around best management practices will continue, and a business case for manure management for smallholder dairy farmers will be developed, amongst other research and development activities.

Further information

For more information, please contact project leader Jelle Zijlstra (