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A systematic global stocktake of evidence on human adaptation to climate change

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Assessing global progress on human adaptation to climate change is an urgent priority. Although the literature on adaptation to climate change is rapidly expanding, little is known about the actual extent of implementation. We systematically screened >48,000 articles using machine learning methods and a global network of 126 researchers. Our synthesis of the resulting 1,682 articles presents a systematic and comprehensive global stocktake of implemented human adaptation to climate change. Documented adaptations were largely fragmented, local and incremental, with limited evidence of transformational adaptation and negligible evidence of risk reduction outcomes. We identify eight priorities for global adaptation research: assess the effectiveness of adaptation responses, enhance the understanding of limits to adaptation, enable individuals and civil society to adapt, include missing places, scholars and scholarship, understand private sector responses, improve methods for synthesizing different forms of evidence, assess the adaptation at different temperature thresholds, and improve the inclusion of timescale and the dynamics of responses.

Citation

Hamilton NC, Kirchhoff CJ, Kumar P, Pentz B, Simpson NP, Theokritoff E, Deryng D, Reckien D, Zavaleta-Cortijo C, Ulibarri N, Segnon AC, Khavhagali V, Shang Y, Zvobgo L, Zommers Z, Xu J, Williams PA, Canosa, IV, van Maanen N, van Bavel B, van Aalst M,Turek-Hankins, LL, Trivedi H, Trisos CH, Thomas A, Thakur S, Templeman S, Stringer LC, Sotnik G, Sjostrom KD, Singh C, Siña MZ, Shukla R, Sardans J, Salubi EA, Safaee Chalkasra, LS, Ruiz-Díaz, R, Richards C, Pokharel P, Petzold J, Penuelas J, Pelaez Avila J, Murillo JBP, Ouni S, Niemann J, Nielsen M, New M, Nayna Schwerdtle P, Nagle Alverio G, Mullin CA, Mullenite J, Mosurska A, Morecroft MD, Minx JC, Maskell G, Nunbogu AM, Magnan AK, Lwasa S, Lukas-Sithole M, Lissner T, Lilford O, Koller, SF, Jurjonas M, Joe ET, Huynh LTM, Hill A, Hernandez RR, Hegde G, Hawxwell T, Harper S, Harden A, Haasnoot M, Gilmore EA, Gichuki L, Gatt A, Garschagen M, Ford JD, Forbes A, Farrell AD, Enquist CAF, Elliott S, Duncan E, Coughlan de Perez E, Coggins S, Chen T, Campbell D, Browne KE, Bowen KJ, Biesbroek R, Bhatt ID, Bezner Kerr R, Barr SL, Baker E, Austin SE, Arotoma-Rojas I, Anderson C, Ajaz W, Agrawal T, Abu TZ. 2021. A systematic global stocktake of evidence on human adaptation to climate change. Nature Climate Change 11:989-1000.. Vol 11

Authors

Berrang-Ford, Lea
Siders, A. R
Lesnikowski, Alexandra
Fischer, Alexandra Paige
Callaghan, Max W
Haddaway, Neal R
Mach, Katharine J
Araos, Malcolm
Shah, Mohammad Aminur Rahman
Wannewitz, Mia
Doshi, Deepal
Leiter, Timo
Matavel, Custodio
Musah-Surugu, Justice Issah
Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle
Antwi-Agyei, Philip
Ajibade, Idowu
Chauhan, Neha
Kakenmaster, William
Grady, Caitlin
Chalastani, Vasiliki I
Jagannathan, Kripa
Galappaththi, Eranga K
Sitati, Asha
Scarpa, Giulia
Totin, Edmond
Davis, Katy
Hamilton, Nikita Charles
Kirchhoff, Christine J
Kumar, Praveen
Pentz, Brian
Simpson, Nicholas P
Theokritoff, Emily
Deryng, Delphine
Reckien, Diana
Zavaleta-Cortijo, Carol
Ulibarri, Nicola
Segnon, Alcade C
Khavhagali, Vhalinavho
Shang, Yuanyuan
Zvobgo, Luckson
Zommers, Zinta
Xu, Jiren
Williams, Portia Adade
Canosa, Ivan Villaverde
van Maanen, Nicole
van Bavel, Bianca
van Aalst, Maarten
Turek-Hankins, Lynée L
Trivedi, Hasti
Trisos, Christopher H
Thomas, Adelle
Thakur, Shinny
Templeman, Sienna
Stringer, Lindsay C
Sotnik, Garry
Sjostrom, Kathryn Dana
Singh, Chandni
Siña, Mariella Z
Shukla, Roopam
Sardans, Jordi
Salubi, Eunice A
Safaee Chalkasra, Lolita Shaila
Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel
Richards, Carys
Pokharel, Pratik
Petzold, Jan
Penuelas, Josep
Pelaez Avila, Julia
Murillo, Julia B. Pazmino
Ouni, Souha
Niemann, Jennifer
Nielsen, Miriam
New, Mark G
Nayna Schwerdtle, Patricia
Nagle Alverio, Gabriela
Mullin, Cristina A
Mullenite, Joshua
Mosurska, Anuszka
Morecroft, Mike D
Minx, Jan C
Maskell, Gina
Nunbogu, Abraham Marshall
Magnan, Alexandre K
Lwasa, Shuaib
Lukas-Sithole, Megan
Lissner, Tabea
Lilford, Oliver
Koller, Steven F
Jurjonas, Matthew
Joe, Elphin Tom
Huynh, Lam T. M
Hill, Avery
Hernandez, Rebecca R
Hegde, Greeshma
Hawxwell, Tom
Harper, Sherilee
Harden, Alexandra
Haasnoot, Marjolijn
Gilmore, Elisabeth A
Gichuki, Leah
Gatt, Alyssa
Garschagen, Matthias
Ford, James D
Forbes, Andrew
Farrell, Aidan D
Enquist, Carolyn A. F
Elliott, Susan
Duncan, Emily
Coughlan de Perez, Erin
Coggins, Shaugn
Chen, Tara
Campbell, Donovan
Browne, Katherine E
Bowen, Kathryn J
Biesbroek, Robbert
Bhatt, Indra D
Bezner Kerr, Rachel
Barr, Stephanie L
Baker, Emily
Austin, Stephanie E
Arotoma-Rojas, Ingrid
Anderson, Christa
Ajaz, Warda
Thelma Zulfawu
Agrawal, Tanvi
Abu, Thelma Zulfawu