Agriculture and related land use change contribute nearly a quarter of global annual greenhouse gas emissions. About 75% of agricultural emissions originate in developing countries, and approximately 33% come from smallholder farmers. As countries aim to fulfill their international climate commitments to reduce emissions from agriculture and related land use change, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and CCAFS are partnering to identify opportunities to pursue food security that are compatible with low emissions development. CCAFS conducts country-focused analyses on the agricultural, financial, political and social feasibility of low emission agricultural practices and develops accurate, low-cost monitoring, reporting and verification methods.
The project entails:
- Analysis on the effects of low-emission agricultural practices on yields, potential climate change mitigation benefits and changes in emissions. Case studies from nine projects in nine different countries are published.
- Support select countries in ensuring that they are able to track emission reductions using monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) standards that are evidence-based, feasible to implement, and relevant for policy goals in the agroforestry and livestock sectors.
- Assessing the ambition, feasibility and implementation options – including attracting investments - for reducing emissions from agriculture, with a focus on the high emission intensity agricultural sectors of livestock and rice.
- Refinement of the CCAFS Mitigation Option Tool (CCAFS-MOT), which estimates emissions from crops and livestock production systems in different regions and ranks the most effective mitigation options in relation to current management practices, climate and soil characteristics.
Results enable country partners, donors and other stakeholders to identify the impact of agricultural development projects on climate change and climate change mitigation and analyze opportunities to increase food security and mitigate climate change. By applying rigorous scientific standards and widely sharing its data, the project increases understanding about the range of emissions that might result from business-as-usual and low-emission agricultural practices when deployed at scale, and it improves confidence in reporting and investing in emission reductions.
Publications and outputs
Quantification of the effects of low-emission agricultural practices on yields and emissions
CCAFS, in collaboration with the FAO and the University of Vermont, published a series of info notes analyzing low emissions agricultural practices in USAID development projects. The notes, published in 2016, are listed below by country and agricultural practice. Description of the methodology used follows.
- Accelerating Agriculture Productivity Improvement (AAPI) in Bangladesh, focusing on irrigated rice and soil and fertilizer management
- ACCESO in Honduras focusing on agroforestry and perennial crop expansion, livestock, and soil and fertilizer management.
- Agricultural Development and Value Chain Enhancement Activity (ADVANCE) II in Ghana focusing on irrigated rice and soil and water management.
- Better Life Alliance in Zambia focusing on on agroforestry and perennial crop expansion, land use including reforestation and avoided degradation, and soil and fertilizer management.
- Chanjè Lavi Planté in Haiti focusing on on agroforestry and perennial crop expansion, irrigated rice, land use including reforestation and avoided degradation, and soil and fertilizer management.
- Pastoralist Resiliency Improvement and Market Expansion (PRIME) in Ethiopia focusing on livestock.
- Peru Cacao Alliance in Peru focusing on on agroforestry and perennial crop expansion, and soil and fertilizer management.
- Resilience & Economic Growth in Arid Lands - Accelerated Growth (REGAL-AG) in Kenya focusing on livestock.
- Rwanda Dairy Competitiveness Project in Rwanda focusing on livestock.
- Grewer U, Bockel L, Galford G, Gurwick N, Nash J, Pirolli G, Wollenberg E. 2016. A methodology for greenhouse gas emission and carbon sequestration assessments in agriculture: Supplemental materials for info note series analysing low emissions agricultural practices in USAID development projects. CCAFS Working Paper no. 187. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS); International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
- Nash J. December 6 2016. Mitigation co-benefits of increased water and nutrient efficiency in irrigated rice in Bangladesh. CCAFS Blog. December 6.
- Nash J, Costa C, Galford G, Gurwick N, Wollenberg E. 2015. Methods for Identifying Low Emissions Development Options in Agriculture. CCAFS Working Paper no. 147. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Nash J, Wollenberg L, Galford G, Richards M. 2016. Designing agricultural development investments to yield mitigation co-benefits in livestock and rice systems. Presentation at the USAID Feed the Futrue Global Learning and Evidence Exchage meeting on Cimate-Smart Agriculture. December 7, Siam Reap, Cambodia,
- Wollenberg, E. April 26 2016. Reducing Emissions from Food Value Chains of Smallholders in Africa: Does the Evidence Weigh Up? AgriLinks blog
- Wollenberg E, Nash J, Richards, M. 2016. Low Emissions Development: Evidence for reducing emissions from food value chains of smallholders in Africa. Presentation at the Global Learning and Exchange Event 15 March, Lusaka Zambia.
Ambition and feasibility of low emissions opportunities
- Richards M, Bruun TB, Campbell B, Gregersen LE, Huyer S, Kuntze V, Madsen STN, Oldvig MB, Vasileiou I. 2016. How countries plan to address agricultural adaptation and mitigation: An analysis of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. CCAFS dataset version 1.1. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).
- CIAT. 2017. Validation of RUMINANT model towards accurate estimations of enteric methane emissions under tropical conditions to support Colombian NDC. Presentation at validation workshop, Cali, Colombia on July 26, 2017.
Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV)
- CCAFS. 2016. COP22 side event: Improving MRV for agricultural emission reductions in the livestock sector. Event description. Video.
- White J. May 9 2017. Guidance for national- and activity-level reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation in the livestock sector. CCAFS Blog.
- Wilkes A. 2017. Monitoring, reporting and verification of greenhouse gas emissions from livestock: current practices and opportunities for improvement. CCAFS Info Note.
- Wollenberg E. December 1 2016. Improving reporting for agricultural emission reductions in the livestock sector. CCAFS Blog.
CCAFS Mitigation Options Tool (CCAFS-MOT)
- Feliciano D, Nayak D, Vetter SH, Hillier J. 2016. CCAFS Mitigation Options Tool and Guidelines.
- Feliciano D, Nayak DR, Vetter SH, Hillier J. 2017. CCAFS-MOT - A tool for farmers, extension services and policy-advisors to identify mitigation options for agriculture. Agriculture Systems 154:100-111.
- CCAFS. No date. CCAFS-MOT: a mitigation options tool for agriculture. Webpage.
With funding from USAID, CCAFS is working with the following partners:
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),
- Gund Institute for Environment at the University of Vermont,
- Instituto de Manejo e Certificação Florestal e Agrícola (IMAFLORA),
- International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
- International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
- New Zealand AGricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre (NZAGRC)
- Unique Forestry and Land Use
For more information, please contact Julianna White (CCAFS) at email@example.com.