|“Climate services” refers to the “production, translation, transfer, and use of climate knowledge and information in climate-informed decision making and climate-smart policy and planning” (Climate Services Partnership). Climate services can be a critical means of resiliency-building for smallholder farmers. However, due to gender-related factors, women and men can face differing challenges and opportunities to access climate-related information as well as using it to improve management and benefitting from those improved management decisions. To ensure equal distribution of benefits and promote gender equality, it is critical that food security and climate-resiliency initiatives take into account gender considerations from the earliest planning stages. CCAFS has developed a checklist to guide the consideration of gender issues in climate services projects.
|Effective gender integration in policy has been proposed in many sectors and policies. CCAFS FP1 LAM has endorsed to favor mainstreaming of gender issue within climate and food security policy in agricultural sectors in Latin America. This document aims at providing a framework to analyze the current integration of gender issue and bottlenecks for further integration. Based on an extensive academic and grey literature regarding gender issue in policy, this document propose a state of the art on existing frameworks integrating gender issues in agriculture, CC and food and nutrition security, and criteria to evaluate gender integration. It finally proposed a framework to be tested in the CCAFS FP1 LAM to capture and understand the situation of gender integration within policy mix tackling CC and food nutrition security in agricultural sector.
|While the international norm on gender mainstreaming, UN-backed since 1995, has been widely adopted in national policies, gender inequalities are rarely systematically addressed on the ground. To explain this limited effectiveness, this paper takes a discourse analytical perspective on gender policy and budgeting, with a focus on the translation of the international norm into domestic norms and policies. An in-depth, inductive analysis of 107 policy documents in Uganda examines how the gender mainstreaming norm has been translated at three administrative levels: national, district, sub-county.
|This study analyzes the extent of gender integration in agricultural and natural resource policies in Uganda and Tanzania, and how gender is budgeted for in implementation plans at district and lower governance levels. A total of 155 policy documents, development plans, and annual action plans from national, district, and sub-county/ward levels were reviewed. In addition, district and sub-county budgets for four consecutive financial years from 2012/2013 to 2015/2016 were analyzed for gender allocations.
|Drawing on feminist theories of power and social embeddedness, this study investigates how gendered power relationships materialize and influence formal milk marketing engagement and practices in Western Kenya.
|Within the Kenyan dairy sector, climate change mitigation interventions are striving to sustainably intensify milk production while addressing the gender dynamics that mediate farmers’ ability to effectively participate in, and benefit from, low emissions development. In order to better understand these gender dynamics, household surveys were deployed by the East African Dairy Development (EADD) program to collect information on current practices of decision-making, resources, and labor dynamics within dairy farm households. Using the EADD survey results as secondary data, this study analyzes emergent patterns in these domains among cattle-keeping households in Bomet, Nandi, Uasin Gishu, and Kericho counties in Western Kenya.
|This brief summarizes preliminary findings and recommendations from an ongoing analysis of CCAFSsponsored synthesis data on gendered participation in informal milk markets in four counties in central and western Kenya.
|This info note examines gender roles in livestock production and unpaid work in the household among the small-scale livestock producers in the municipality of Los Chiles in Huetar Norte region of Costa Rica.
|This report presents the findings and recommendations from a gender assessment and learning review of IFAD’s Adaptation in Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP).
|This Info Note complements the IFAD How To Do Note on “Design of gender transformative smallholder agriculture adaptation programmes”, which provides guidance on integrating gender transformative approaches into agriculture and adaptation program design.
|This study aims to determine (1) whether perceptions on climate change and variability differ between men and women farmers; (2) whether gender is a determinant of climate information use; and (3) whether men and women benefit and face similar constraints to the use of climate information services.
|This info note presents preliminary information on each of the major steps of a CSV approach and its components and linking them with gender and CSA.
Journal article: Woman in agriculture, and climate risks: hotspots for development
|This study presents a methodology to identify hotspots where climate change adaptation and gender based interventions could be prioritized.
|The present brief highlights some of these key challenges to achieving socially inclusive access to weather and climate information, and presents promising pathways for developing gender-sensitive communication channels in climate services.
|The launching event of the project “Generating evidence on gender sensitive Climate-Smart Agriculture to inform policy in Central America” funded by IDRC and led by CCAFS and CIAT was carried out as part of a broader knowledge exchange event between Central American countries and Colombia. Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) was the main topic of the knowledge exchange which also included discussions on gender implications in implementing and scaling CSA options across the region.
|The working paper aims to identify recommendations for gender-aware monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of rural climate services, highlighting system design and indicator development. Drawing from the literature from rural development sectors, the paper first identifies key lessons learned on gender-aware M&E. For example, to measure changes related to gender equality, it can be key to incorporate frameworks for measuring empowerment, use mixed methods and participatory tools, and follow gender-aware interview practices. Clearly incorporating gender equality objectives in the theory of change, facilitating gender support for M&E project teams, and carrying out a robust social assessment that includes gender analysis can be important practices to ensure that gender considerations are taken into account from the onset of M&E design. The paper then focuses on considerations specific to rural climate services.
Journal article: Closing the gender gap in agriculture under climate change
|Gender-responsive climate-smart agricultural (CSA) practices and technologies provide an opportunity to close the gender gap as well as bring women into the forefront in the fight against climate change. Priority activities include identification of the preferences and priorities of women, men and youth to develop practices that are appropriate to each group; labour-saving and productivity-enhancing technologies; access to climate information services; participation of women in agricultural value chains and non-farm activities; and engaging women and men in challenging social and cultural norms.
|This review summarizes existing knowledge on gender issues in biogas promotion and use, and existing experience with addressing gender issues in biogas promotion initiatives. The focus is on household (domestic) biogas.
|This paper reviews climate change related policies and strategies in East Africa through a gendered lens.
|In this paper, we pursue the proposal that improving the capacity of women (and young people) to participate in intermediary organizations is intrinsic to increasing the capacity of those organizations to innovate effectively. Bringing these two factors into a dynamic interrelationship with each other will, we contend, help facilitate an improved environment for climate resilience and contribute to reducing net GHG emissions from target agricultural systems.
|This brief summarizes preliminary findings and recommendations from an ongoing review of literature and CCAFS experience on gender-related challenges in empowering smallholder farming communities through climate services.
|The paper analyzes household level socioeconomic data collected in 2015 within a Climate-Smart Village of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) in Tuma La Dalia, Nicaragua, where smallholder shade coffee production is a substantial economic activity.
|This report, which forms part of the PIRCCA project outputs, focuses on the results of the survey conducted in the first half of 2015 on climate change perception and adaptation strategies of male and female farmers in three selected provinces in Vietnam: An Giang, Bac Lieu, and Tra 2 Vihn. The survey seeks to gather information on current climate change perceptions and adaptation strategies and gaps between the identified male and female respondents.
|An analysis of progress in gender equality at COP21.
|This study examines the extent to which organizations involved in climate change and resilience work are incorporating gender-sensitive approaches into their programs using data collected through a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey and Key Informant Interviews (KII) targeted at government agencies, local and international NGOs, and other practitioners.
Working paper: CCAFS Gender and Social Inclusion Strategy
|The 2016 CCAFS Gender and Social Inclusion Strategy addresses gender as well as social inclusion for different social groups while bearing in mind that women are central to agriculture in developing countries. It builds on research and experience since the program was established in 2010, various external reviews, as well as the performance management and measurement frameworks put in place since 2011.
|This paper uses the household level data of 641 households from 12 randomly selected villages in Vaishali district of Bihar to understand the household coping mechanisms with emphasis on role of gender. This study has moved away from the conventional division of households by male and female-headed households and thus capturing the intra-household gender dynamics by understanding the role of men and women within the household as decision makers of the coping strategy to manage climate shock.
|The aim of this brief is to explain how to take into account the gender gap in agriculture in the development of site-specific CSA-sensitive practices, such as those described in other briefs in this series, through the adoption of a gender-responsive approach.
|The degree to which there is an overlap among the priorities of men, women, and organizations (including non-governmental bodies, local government offices, and other agencies working in the community) is not generally known, nor do we know whether organizations are strengthening the adaptive capacity of both men and women effectively and equally. Using gender-disaggregated data arising from community-level participatory research and organizational-level interviews from 15 sites across West Africa, East Africa, and South Asia, we conduct a cross-regional analysis of local organizational landscapes as they relate to livelihoods and food security.
|This article focuses on how access to information through the mobile phone makes women feel empowered if they are receptive to the information they receive. It also seeks to find out the type of information most valuable to women.
|Inspired by the works of feminist scholars engaged in the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS), this article attempts to demonstrate the need to broaden the debate on gender-sensitive climate change adaptation technologies.
|We argue that for women smallholder farmers to become more climate change resilient, more serious attention to gender analysis is needed to address their constraints in accessing basic agricultural technologies, combined with participatory approaches to develop and adapt CSA tools and technologies to their needs in future climates and agro-ecologies.
Journal article: Closing the gender gap in agriculture
|Technologies to support resilience and adaptation to climate change by smallholder farmers can promote women’s empowerment and the transformation of gender relations in addition to sustainably increasing agricultural production. But this will only happen if they are implemented in a framework of mutually reinforcing resources, women’s control of assets, equitable decisionmaking between women and men, and strengthened capacity.
|In this study we use data from peasant communities in rural Peru to explore the effect of the intra-household allocation of inherited land on women’s empowerment.
|This brief summarizes the findings of a project output for the Policy Information and Response Platform on Climate Change and Rice in ASEAN and its Member Countries (PIRCCA), being implemented by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). The report focuses on the results of the survey conducted in the first half of 2015 on climate change perception and adaptation strategies of male and female farmers in three selected provinces across the Mekong River Delta (MRD) region in Vietnam: An Giang, Bac Lieu, and Tra Vihn. The survey gathered information on current climate change perceptions and adaptation strategies and gaps between the identified male and female respondents.
|This study measures the willingness of male and female farmers to pay for climate-smart technology in rice.
|This report provides an analysis of the status of gender equality in national climate policy in light of the Paris Agreement.
|This Info Note examines the state of gender responsiveness of fourteen agriculture, climate change and natural resource management policy documents and strategy plans in Tanzania.
|Building on our previous research, this Info Note assesses, through a grading system, the level of gender integration of 83 agri-food policies and strategies at national, district and sub-county levels.
|This study analyzes policy documents and budgets from the different levels of governance to ascertain (i) the extent to which gender is integrated, (ii) characterization of men and women, and (iii) existent structural constraints and how they have been addressed in agri-food policies.
|This info note examines gender roles in livestock production and unpaid work in the household among the small-scale livestock producers in the municipality of Patía in Cauca region of Colombia. Our main objectives are - visibilize women’s direct roles and indirect contributions in livestock production and examine whether women’s reproductive roles interfere with their participation in livestock production.
|This paper examines climate change adaptation and gender issues through an application of a feminist intersectional approach.
|This brief provides five policy lessons to support this process, based on evidence from research in low- and middle-income countries.
|This paper provides an overview of the state of gender inclusion in national policies related to climate change in seven target countries of CCAFS in Latin America.
|This paper documents the social learning process of co-designing and co-testing the Gender and Social Inclusion Toolbox with various development partners, CGIAR scientists, technical officers and local communities and offers key reflections and learning on the challenges and entry points to promoting a participatory and gender sensitive research agenda across upstream and downstream stakeholders.
|This brief compiles some of the lessons learned from working with gender and social inclusion within CCAFS.
|This paper analyses gender differences in awareness and adoption of climate-smart agricultural (CSA) practices.
|CCAFS South Asia works with local partner organisations to empower women leaders and farmers to understand how best they can adapt to climate change and what resources they require to do so. We also map gender-related climate-smart agricultural practices, develop training materials on climate change adaptation and analyse adaptation policies from a gendered perspective.
|The aim of this study was to develop an approach to deepening the understanding of gender in terms of the major topics of CCAFS. The objective was to develop and test participatory tools for investigating the gender dimensions of agriculture and climate change. In this paper, we describe the topics explored, the tools used and the results obtained. We analyse the tools in terms of ease and consistency of implementation, and the strengths of the pilot test results in terms of generating useful information for practitioners and others seeking more gender equitable agricultural development strategies and solutions.
|In this paper we examine conditions that underlie vulnerability and resilience possibilities for households and communities that face and respond to climate- and other changes, in nine East and West African countries.
|This paper challenges standard analyses of gender differences in agriculture, which typically focus on the sex of household heads or landholders, by considering who makes decisions on land owned by married women. We show that joint ownership and joint decision-making by couples is common in Ecuador but would be overlooked in studies focusing on only one farm manager. We also show that there are gender differences in perceptions about land ownership and agricultural decision-making, with men reporting lower levels of women’s participation compared to their wives’ report.
|This module provides guidance and a comprehensive menu of practical tools for integrating gender in the planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of projects and investments in climate-smart agriculture (CSA). The module emphasizes the importance and ultimate goal of integrating gender in CSA practices, which is to reduce gender inequalities and ensure that men and women can equally benefit from any intervention in the agricultural sector to reduce risks linked to climate change.
|This info note reviews recent approaches relevant to climate-smart agriculture programs.
|Policies, institutions and services to help farmers develop new approaches to deal with climate change will need to produce results for women farmers as well as men. This brief provides five policy lessons to support this process, based on evidence from research in low- and middle- income countries and offers guidelines for crafting gender-responsive climate policies at global and national levels.
|This paper examines the limited research to date on the interactions between conservation agriculture interventions and gender in East and Southern Africa, and, based on the gaps observed, sets out a research agenda.
|This brief highlights key gender-related findings regarding climate change perceptions, adaptation strategies and information needs in Kaffrine, Senegal, where CCAFS is working.
|There is significant interest in determining the role of climate-induced shocks as a prominent driver on migration decisions of different groups of farmers in South Asia. Using data from a survey of 2,660 farm-families and focused group discussions in Bihar (India), Terai (plains) (Nepal) and coastal Bangladesh, we employed logistic regression to investigate household response towards migration and gender dimensions of adverse climatic events.
Journal article: Microinsurance Decisions: Gendered Evidence from Rural Bangladesh
|This paper draws from a field research experiment to examine the gendered aspects of willingness to pay for index-based insurance in Bangladesh.
|The main objective of the study was to investigate the linkages between gender and climate change. More specifically the study focused on gender-wise perceptions of climate change, understanding coping strategies followed by gender, participation of gender in decision-making and vulnerability of male and female households to the poverty.
|Brief on the mitigation opportunities for men and women livestock producers in Latin America.
|Brief on how the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) has made the need to understand and transform gender dynamics in relation to climate change one of its most important priorities.
|This brief compiles some of the lessons learned while carrying out participatory action research activities and methodologies for gender-sensitive research design.
|This manual is a resource and toolbox for NGO practitioners and programme designers interested in diagnostic and action research for gender sensitive and socially inclusive climate change programmes in the rural development context.
Working paper: Adaptation Actions in Africa: Evidence that Gender Matters
|This paper presents the initial data analyses of the CCAFS gender survey implemented in four sites in Africa.
|This report reviews the extensive literature on the vulnerability to climate change in South Asia, with a focus on gender. It highlights how vulnerability is intricately connected to existing social structures.
|User guide based on a CCAFS project that examined indigenous tree shrubs and forages in the Rift Valley and parts of central Kenya to generate knowledge on how these feeds can be utilized to improve milk production and provide labour savings to women who spend hours on feed collection.
|This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive understanding of the adaptation behaviour of maize-legume farm households in response to climate shocks, with emphasis on poverty, food security and gender perspectives.
|This report summarizes a new contextual and gender-responsive monitoring and evaluation framework (M&E) to assess the added value of climate information and advisory services for smallholder farming communities across the developing world.
|This paper summarizes the results from previous CCAFS investigation on gender-specific climate vulnerabilities, endogenous adaptation strategies, and resulting climate service needs. It articulates how male and female rural farmers in Kaffrine are currently coping with climate stresses, and how these decisions impact their livelihoods and food security levels
|Our objectives were developed in consultation with CIAT and included establishing a strong relationship with local stakeholders and campesinos in the city of Popayán and in the Piedras River Watershed and collecting preliminary data on farming strategies, farmer perceptions regarding climate change, and how gendered roles play a part in their perceptions of climate change.
|Within the framework of the CCAFS program, this research explores the gender dynamics of small-scale agriculture in the Río las Piedras watershed, located in the Colombian Massif, as related to decision-making, access to information, distribution of assets, division of labor, and perceptions towards new CSA practices.
|This paper explores access to climate change-related information through a gendered lens. The purpose of this study is to identify instances in which methods of communication are missing women and how to overcome these gaps. What we propose is a context-dependent hybridization of traditional methods of communication, which are familiar to communities, and modern technologies, which can be expedient in sharing new scientific climate knowledge with farmers.
Working paper: A gender strategy for pro-poor climate change mitigation
|This report proposes a gender strategy for climate change mitigation and the promotion of low emissions agriculture. Specifically, we provide a strategy for assuring that mitigation efforts meet the goals of poverty alleviation and food security, and do so in ways that benefit poor women materially, personally and socially. We focus on women because of their historical and contemporary disadvantages, and recognize that benefits for women are generally broader and more durable to the extent men embrace those benefits, whether out of their own material interests or from commitments to family and community well-being.
|This brief focuses on the constraints that women face to more equitable participation in smallholder carbon and climatesmart initiatives. It highlights the important role that a flexible learning approach plays in advancing equity goals, and offers recommendations for concrete actions that can empower both women and men.
|This paper assessed gender differences in agricultural activities that have a potential effect on N2O emissions from agricultural soils in the Ansikhola watershed of the mid-hill region of Nepal.
|This training-of-trainers manual is designed to train you to be able to deliver a capacity enhancement workshop (CEW) to rural women on climate change and gender.
|This paper addresses issues of gender and human development opportunities and trade-offs related to promoting improved technologies for agricultural development.
Workshop report: CCAFS Gender Training and Strategizing Workshop Report
|The CCAFS Gender Training and Strategizing Workshop was designed for National Research Agricultural Systems (NARS), Non-governmental Organisations (NGO) and CGIAR partners working on gender and equity.
Conference paper: Determinants of Food Security in Kenya, a Gender Perspective
|The paper contributes to an understanding of the determinants of food security with a bias on the link between gender of household head and food security using detailed farm household and plot level survey data from 30 divisions in rural Kenya.
This study was designed with the following objectives: 1. To understand how men and women crop - livestock farmers in Rakai perceive concepts of climate change 2. To determine how climate change affect crop - livestock production by women and men farmers in Rakai district 3. To determine the different coping and adaptation strategies used by women and men 4. To evaluate simple adaptation technologies on farms of women and men 5. To disseminate project results to more women and men farmers, extension staff, National Agricultural Advisory Services ( NAADS), policy makers, Non Government Organization (NGOs) and community based organizations (CBOs)
|CCAFS and FAO have developed a training document on gender, climate change, agriculture and food security, which includes Participatory Action Research methods and guidance on how to analyze the data collected in using those methods. Thus the overall objective of this short-term research was to test these tools and methodologies on gender analysis in climate change, agriculture and food security in Ghana.
|We examine how well existing participatory gender-sensitive research approaches address some key climate change-related research issues that CCAFS has prioritized. Bringing together gender experts and experienced agricultural research teams from Bangladesh, Ghana, and Uganda, multiple methods were tested in the field, and refined through the lessons learned, to help inform future action research and development efforts towards enhancing communities’ and individuals’ (particularly women’s) access to, and use of, information and knowledge to help them adapt to climate variability through more resilient livelihoods and agro-ecosystems.
|CCAFS and FAO have developed a training document on gender, climate change, agriculture and food security, which includes Participatory Action Research methods and guidance on how to analyze the data collected in using those methods. Thus the overall objective of this short-term research was to test these tools and methodologies on gender analysis in climate change, agriculture and food security in Uganda.
|This paper analyses data from a household-level survey of 980 agricultural and fishing households in seven sites across southern Bangladesh. It also describes agricultural work and off farm activities, differentiated by gender.
|The purpose of this guide is to promote gender-responsive and socially-sensitive climate change research and development in the agriculture and food security sectors through participatory approaches. The guide focuses on the household and community level. It provides users with resources and tools for collecting, analysing and sharing gender-sensitive information about agricultural communities, households and individual household members who are facing climatic changes.