Upscaling promising livestock options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Asia

Photo: G. Smith (CIAT)

Project description

Reducing emissions intensities from livestock is an opportunity  and necessity  given sectoral trends of increasing per capita meat and dairy consumption in developing countries, where the population is growing.

This project consists of four work packages that test and scale low-emission development (LED) options in Asian dairy production systems:

1. Upscaling LED options in small-scale dairy farms in Indonesia (SIDPI; 2016-2019)
2. Testing and upscaling LED options in large-scale dairy farms in China (2019-2021)
3. Fungi treatment for lignin degradation of low-quality biomass (2019-2021)
4. Closing Regional Nutrient Cycles for low-emission agriculture (2018-2021)

LED options are focussed on improved feeding, fodder production, and manure management at the farm level and regional level. Strategies developed in this project contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mainly through improved resource use efficiency and contributions to the circular economy. LED options focussed on improved feeding and fodder production can increase farm productivity and income, and improve farmer livelihoods.

Expected outcomes

In terms of emerging outcomes, the dairy cooperative KPSBU in Lembang (4k farmers) has started to monitor discharging of cattle manure and is expected to start a revolving fund for manure management investments in 2019 with support of the SIDPI project. If possible, the National Government (MoA) and the provincial government of West Java will be advised on solutions for dairy waste management, as well as dairy cooperatives in Java (190k dairy farmers). This initiative will be linked to the Indonesian Citarum Harum Program (a program to clean the Citarum river in West Java, which is supported by IMF and ADB).

Gender and youth

Participation of youth and women is stimulated in project activities, i.e. young/female-headed pilot farms, young/female researchers, and participation of youth and women in trainings, focus groups, and demonstrations. Potential benefits of LED options to youth and women will be evaluated in field research in China.

The role of women in dairy farming has been monitored in the project starting from the baseline survey and will continue throughout. SIDPI intends to ensure that women farmers’ incomes and livelihoods improve at least on part with improvements shown by men farmers.

More Information

For more information, please contact project leader Jelle Zijlstra (

Project Activities

(WP1) Indonesia:
- 2020: Evaluation of the SIDPI project by local institute
(WP2) China:
- data collection (farm data) to assess farm characteristics, performance and environmental impacts (LCA) (CAAS and CAU)
- evaluation of developed tools and outreach to farmers and stakeholders
(WP4) Indonesia:
- 2019: Large scale survey 300 horticultural farms
- 2020: Data collection on pilot farms horticulture and dairy

(WP1) Indonesia :
- None (pilots ended in 2019)
(WP2) China :
- 2020-2021: Piloting of farm assessment followed by expert recommendations in the field of sutainable intensification and implementation of mitigation options selected by the farmers
(WP4) Closing Regional Nutrient Cycles :
- 2020-2021: Piloting of improved practices for utilisation of cattle manure in horticulture

- preparatory field visits
- stakeholder workshop
- kick-off meeting project partners and advisory board meeting

(WP1) Indonesia :
2019-2021: 2 PhD and 2 MSc research projects focussed on monitoring and evaluating ecological, economic and social sustainability of SHF in Lembang. Supervision by WUR and IPB.
PhD1: 'Sustainable Intensification of small-holder dairy farming by improving feeding and nutrition:
- evaluate effects of improved feeding management strategies on economic, ecological, and social sustainability of dairy production systems in Lembang, West-Java.
- identify barriers, incentives and extension methods that lead to adoption of improved practices at a wider scale.
PhD2: 'Sustainable Intensification of small-holder dairy farming by improving manure management':
- evaluate effects of improved manure management strategies on economic, ecological, and social sustainability of dairy production systems in Lembang, West-Java.
- identify barriers, incentives and extension methods that lead to adoption of improved practices at a wider scale.
(8 scientific papers expected from PhD projects after 2020 - not entered in MARLO yet)

(WP1) Indonesia :
- PhD research (bilateral budget LPDP): field experiment on fertilizer effects of cattle manure in Napier grass. (completed in 2019)
China (WP2):
- Test LED options through implementation on pilot farms and demo farms. The numbers of pilot farms and demo farms (in different regions) are still part of the planning process. Farms will be assessed using the total farm approach assessment tool and based on that the choose the mitigation options to be implemented on their farms. Results wil be monitored: GHG emissions, farm productivity, costs and revenues and benefits to youth and women. Much attention is paid to connect large dairy processors who are supplied by large numbers of dairy farms.

(WP1) Indonesia:
- 2020: Online National closure meeting with stakeholders in (prov/nat) governments, private sector, knowledge institutes, NGO's.
(WP2) China:
- Training and education activities (training courses, farmer field days/demonstrations for CN dairy farmers and extension
- Host stakeholder engagement activities at provincial and national level, including workshops/seminars and high level meetings.
- Policy recommendations for national and regional authorities
- Host regional SEA workshop (with all WP's)
(WP3) Indonesia:
- 2021: (if Covid19 allows: Training of farmer group leaders), dissemination of practice guidelines (brochures), policy recommendations

Indonesia (WP1):
- None (activities ended in 2019)
China (WP2):
- (WP2) Assess feasibility of upscaling trhough evaluation of the results achieved on the demo farms and the assessment of mitigation options for different Chinese regions and farming systems.

(WP 2 China) Development of tools that can be used to: (1) demonstrate farm performance indicators including environmental impact (data processing software) and (2) execute farm assessment to provide recommendations about mitigation options to dairy farmers (consultancy approach including use of available tools)

Project Deliverables

  • Trainings manure management and feeding in dairy farming

  • Stakeholder seminar on results SIDPI project & MoU signed dairy-horticulture

  • Article in newspaper on agricultural development on fodder production (Odot and Mulato)

  • University Lecture Sustainable Livestock Production

  • BSc theses/internship reports

  • Mid-term report on effects of BMPs on herd performance, production costs and GHG emissions in SIDPI pilot farms