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Invest in climate change mitigation and agriculture

Photo: V. Atakos, CCAFS

As the time frame for limiting climate change shortens, public and private investment in low emissions agriculture must rapidly scale up to meet climate change mitigation targets.

As investors, companies and farmers face evolving climate-related risks to production and stability of supply chains, now is the time to transform to low-carbon and resilient global food systems. Below are economic analyses and business cases for achieving climate change mitigation in agriculture, with a focus on opportunities in production. More business cases are on the way.

Economic analyses and business cases

2019. Scaling climate-smart agriculture: Towards co-creating business models in the input supply chains and finance chains. CCAFS Info Note.

2018. Financial service supply with potential for supporting climate-smart agriculture: Quick scan around the Climate-Smart Village AR4D sites of the CGIAR-CCAFS Research Program in 20 countries. CCAFS Working Paper.

2017. Assessing the Return On Investment in Watershed Conservation: Best Practices Approach and Case Study for the Rio Camboriú PWS Program, Santa Catarina, Brazil. [Report download]. The Nature Conservancy.

2017. The Business Case For Natural Capital Assessment. [Report download]. Global Nature Fund (GNF).

2016. Making the business case for sustainable commodities: A guide to good practice. [Guide]. World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF).

2015. The Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Results from the ECONADAPT project. ECONADAPT Policy Report. 


2018. The economic case for climate action in West-African cocoa production report. CCAFS Report.

2015. Reforestation, carbon sequestration and agriculture: can carbon financing promote sustainable smallholder activities in Nicaragua? [Report]. IIED and Hivos.


2019. An investment plan for low-emission rice production in the Mekong River Delta region in support of Vietnam's Nationally Determined Contribution to the Paris Agreement. CCAFS Working Paper.

2018. Business models for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from food loss and waste: Improving cereal storage in Tanzania could reduce food loss and emissions by 14%. CCAFS Report.

2018. Business models for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from food loss and waste: Crates to transport tomatoes in Nigeria could reduce food loss and emissions by 36%. CCAFS Report.


2018. The feasibility of low emissions development interventions for the East African livestock sector: Lessons from Kenya and Ethiopia. IILRI Research Report. 

2018. From subsistence to professional dairy businesses: Feasibility study for climate-smart livelihoods through improved livestock systems in Oromia, Ethiopia. [Report]. Solidaridad. 

2018. Business models for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from food loss and waste: Reducing milk spoilage in Kenya could reduce food loss and emissions by 10.5%. CCAFS Report.

2018. Cost–benefit analysis of fodder production as a low emissions development strategy for the Kenyan dairy sector. ILRI Project Report.

2018. The potential for commercial hay production in Kenya. CCAFS Info Note

2018. The potential for reduced consumption of high- emission energy in Kenya’s dairy sector. CCAFS Info Note.

Food Systems

2019. Climate change mitigation and food loss and waste reduction: Exploring the business case. CCAFS Report.

2019. Financing the Transformation of Food Systems Under a Changing Climate. CCAFS Report.


2018. Climate change mitigation and food loss and waste reduction: Exploring the business case. CCAFS Working Paper.2018. The business case for investing in soil health. [Report]. World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).

2018. Growing the Good: The case for low-carbon transition in the food sector. [Report] Changing Markets Foundation, Mighty Earth, Compassion in World Farming.

National and corporate emissions accounting

2016. Monitoring, reporting, and verification requirements and implementation costs for climate change mitigation activities: Focus on Bangladesh, India, Mexico, and Vietnam. CCAFS Working Paper.

More information

2019. Business models of SMEs as a mechanism for scaling climate-smart technologies: The case of Punjab, India. [Journal Article]. Journal of Cleaner Production.

2018. How can we turn climate-smart agriculture to a good investment? CCAFS blog.

2018. Climate change and the just transition: A guide for investor action. [Guide] Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.

2017. Climate finance: agriculture investments. [Presentation]. Climate Policy Initiative presentation.

2016. Business compendium: How the private sector is building Europe’s climate ambition. [Report]. University of Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership (CISL).

2016. Making climate finance work in agriculture. [Working paper]. World Bank Group.

2016. Are climate-smart agricultural practices economically desirable? CCAFS Blog.

2015. Implications on equity in agricultural carbon market projects: a gendered analysis of access, decision making, and outcomes. [Journal Article]. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space.

2014. Economics of adaptation. Book Chapter: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.

2011. InVEST 2.0 Beta User’s Guide: Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs. [Web guide]. The Natural Capital Project.

2010. Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change: Synthesis report. [Report]. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank.

CCAFS works with multiple partners on investment, economic analyses and business cases.

For more information on investing in climate-smart agriculture, please contact Alberto Millan, Sustainable Finance specialist (

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