Nepal is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is a developing country with a low-income economy that is struggling with high-levels of poverty and food insecurity. Current growth of the industrial sector and employment generation is very low.

Agriculture is a primary economic sector in Nepal, contributing about 35% of the country’s GDP and employing more than 65% of the population. Rice, maize, wheat, millets, barley, pulses, oilseeds and sugarcane are the main crops grown in Nepal. The majority of farming practices are dependent on seasonal rainfall.

Nepal is a highly vulnerable country to climate change. Change in rainfall patterns, incidence of frequent droughts, floods and heat waves, and the rapid melting of glaciers are major risks in the country. The Government of Nepal has emphasized climate change as one of the challenges in the country’s development. Several policy documents reflect the government's commitment to combat the negative impacts of climate change. Nepal’s Climate Change Policy (2011), National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPA), Agricultural Development Strategy (ADS) and other sector climate change adaptation policies and plans are being implemented in the country.

CCAFS’s major activities in Nepal include prioritization of adaptation/mitigation strategies in agriculture sector, promotion of CSA through the Climate-Smart Village (CSV) approach, crop yield forecasting for weather risk management, gender and social inclusion in climate-smart agriculture and support the inclusion of agricultural issues in climate change adaptation and agricultural policies at all levels. CCAFS and CGIAR centers together are engaging with national and sub-national stakeholders including policymakers, NGOs and civil society groups, research organizations, farmers groups and private sector for promotion of climate-smart agriculture in Nepal. Priority areas include Indo-Gangetic Plan of southern Nepal (Terai region).