El Tuma-La Dalia Climate-Smart Village, Nicaragua


The Municipality of El Tuma – La Dalia is located in the northeastern part of Matagalpa Department. It extends over 650.3 km2 and has a population of 56,681 (INIDE 2006), of which 85% is rural and 15% urban. Its population is very young, following the national trend, with 52% of people under 16. Women make up 49.3% of the population, below the national average by 2.7% and below the department’s average by 4.7%.  

The climate in El Tuma-La Dalia is characteristic for subtropical, semi-humid forests. The annual temperature average is 22.6% and the average amount of rainfall is 1404 mm, with a dry and a wet season. The rainy season lasts from June to November with monthly averages of rainfall of 210 and 213 mm, respectively. The hottest period extends between July and August and has various effects depending on its duration. The dry season lasts 5-6 months (from December to May), with April being the driest month, when the average monthly rainfall can be as little as 19.2 mm.


Municipality of El Tuma-La Dalia, Matagalpa (Nicaragua).

Baseline studies

The baseline studies done by CCAFS and its partners in the field include:

Average farm size

54% of interviewees reported having farms between 1 and 5 ha, 27% less than 1 ha and only 19% of the CSV’s households own more than 5 ha.

Food security and diversification

The area stands out for its harvest of basic grains, especially corn and beans, as well as bananas and plantains; nevertheless, just 4% of interviewees said they didn’t have food security issues. 40% of interviewed households said that between one and two months per year they have difficulties in satisfying their food requirements. 47% said that ensuring food for their family is problematic between 3 to 4 months every year.

Key data


Basic grains (beans and corn), coffee, livestock and recently, cocoa, are the main engines of the local economy. Infrastructure is too limited to add aggregated value, but its proximity to the department’s capital favors the service sector (daily workers, vendors, housewives) that are another important sources of income for the area. The household diversification index shows that 62% of households produce between 5 and 8 products. 

Land use

Based on El Tuma-La Dalia’s climate, soil and topography, land use is split between: 62% production forest, 17% forest protection and 14% agroforestry, while agriculture claims just 6% of the municipality’s territory (data from MAGFOR, 2010).


  • Completion of baseline studies for households, communities and organizations
  • Through multi-theme, multi departmental farmers’schools, 75 families have implemented CSA practices in gardens and various productive systems.
  • 45 families has joined mass participatory evaluations with varieties of beans adapted to climate change
  • According to the priority framework, a CSA practice portfolio was created
  • Finalizing modelling of greenhouse gas emissions for productive systems in two CSV communities

Pending activities

  • Implementing the PICSA tool for improving production decision making of farmers in CSVs
  • Strengthening farmers’schools by adapting the PICSA tool to the local context
  • Training key institutions in using software programmes and routines specialized in generating climate predictions
  • Measuring greenhouse gas emissions in productive systems in the TeSAC
  • Water erosion and runoff modelling


The Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE), the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Bioversity International, the Municipality of El Tuma-La Dalia.

Other organizations that work in the CSV: Save the Children, Acción Médica Cristiana, the Association for Communal Agricultural Diversification and Development (ADDAC), the Nicaraguan Institute for Research and Development (NITLAPAN) – UCA, the Organization for Rural and Urban Areas Socio-Economic Development (ODESAR).